Inclusive education (IE) refers to the education system in which a normal student spends most of his time in school with a differently-abled student. The term ”differently-abled student” refers to any student with disabilities.
In other words, inclusive education (IE) is opposed to giving education to children with special needs differently from normal children.
Inclusiveness of education states that a normal student and a differently-abled should get equal opportunities to get the education to meet their special educational needs.
Earlier it was envisaged only for differently-abled students, but in modern times every teacher should apply this principle in their classroom in a comprehensive approach.
The principle of inclusive education or integration has historical roots in Canada and the United States.
In place of the old education system, the new education policy is being used in modern times. It is important to highlight that IE does not accept a particular school or classroom.
Now separating disabled children from normal children is no longer valid as Children with disabilities have the same right to participate in educational activities as normal children.
Inclusive education means that students should be provided with meaningful education in an optimum environment so that they can make their life dignified and successful.
It is an education system that ensures quality education to every student without any barriers likeability, physical disability, language, culture, family background, and age.
Steps can be taken for the development of inclusive education
These children will have to be taken within the periphery of education.
(1) The children of the lower class
(2) Working Children
(3) Children found on the streets
(4) Children of migrant workers
(5) HIV Infected and all other types of physically or mentally disabled children
For the maximum development of inclusive education at the school level, there should be a proper arrangement of security, housing, toilets, and drinking water in the school, and at the same time, keeping in mind the individual characteristics of the children, their creative abilities should be developed.
Teachers should maintain constant contact with the parents of the students so that they can tell them about the progress and downfall of the children.
As far as possible, primary education should be made accessible to everyone and everywhere. This problem has to be addressed within the scope of the Right to Education (Amendment) Act, 2019.
Keeping in mind the linguistic problems, efforts will have to be made to remove the problems arising out of it as soon as possible.
Therefore, we have to move towards such an education system, which can be easily available to everyone.
The objectives of inclusive education and general education are almost the same. Such as the development of the country, development of human institutions through proper education to children, civil development, reorganization of society and providing professional efficiency etc.
Apart from these goals, other goals of IE are described as follows –
- To understand the skills and competencies of the parents of children with physical disabilities and to solve the problems and shortcomings faced by the children.
- To first identify and determine the special needs of physically deformed children.
Definition of inclusive education
Definition of inclusive education according to Stephen and Blackheart – “Mainstream education means the provision of education in ordinary classrooms of children or equal opportunity based on psychological thinking which promotes appropriate social humanization and learning through individual planning.”
Educationists – “Inclusive education releases new dimensions not only of learning but of specialized learning.”
Other educationists – “Inclusive education is that education during which general students and special students get an education along with the same faculty with no discrimination.”
- It is such education under which physically handicapped children and normal children together take education in a normal class. Some more assistance is provided to handicapped children. Thus inclusive education is a practical solution to the anti-segregation of children with disabilities.
- It is not a substitute for the exclusive. IE is a complement to specialized education. Sometimes very few physically challenged children can be admitted to an inclusive educational institution. Seriously, handicapped children who take education in specialized educational institutions, after acquiring communication and other talents, can also get admission in coordinated schools.
- The format of this education has been given so that the handicapped child gets equal education opportunities and they can live their life by becoming self-reliant like other people in the society.
- Provides a less restrictive and more effective environment for disabled children so that they can live like normal children.
- It is helpful at every level of society in creating a healthy social environment and the relationship between the disabled and normal children in society. It minimizes the distance between each others in society and provides a feeling of mutual cooperation.
- This is a system under which physically handicapped children are considered as important as normal children.
Scope of inclusive education
It is for all physically and mentally challenged children. It talks about education and general teaching for every such child especially, those who are eligible to be benefited from it.
Read: Child Psychology: Definition, uses and Principles
The working area of inclusive education is to reach out to all such children and lead them to normal living by providing joyful learning.
It includes to:
- physically challenged child
- mentally retarded child
- socially disrupted child
- educationally challenged child
Need for inclusive education
The need for inclusive education is necessary for every country because, with the help of it, the child takes education in a general atmosphere and tries to make himself like a normal child, even though it includes gifted children, special children, and disabled children.
There are many such children who are different from normal children, they are given education together because the ability of learning can be increased in those children.
We can read about the need for it below –
- It, through an inclusive education system, provides an opportunity for children in which disabled children get the opportunity to progress mentally along with normal children.
- It is such an education in which the principle of equality of education is followed, as well as educational integration is also possible through this education framework.
- As mentioned above, both normal and handicapped children take education together normally, due to which a natural environment is created between them, which develops a sense of unity, brotherhood, and equality among the children.
- Where normal children and special children take education together, there is less expenditure on education as it optimizes the resources and maximizes productivity and utilization.
- It is the education where small society is formed where all types of children get education together, as a result of which qualities like morality, love, sympathy, mutual cooperation can be easily increased in them.
- Emotions like learning and social competition are also developed in children through it.
- In today’s era, it has special importance because only this education can bring change in today’s society, so it should be encouraged more and more.
The importance of inclusive education
It is important for the following reasons –
- First, identify and determine the special needs of various children free from physical defects.
- To increase the condition of physical defects before they reach a serious condition, first of all, measures should be taken for their prevention.
- To provide education to the students through various innovative methods of working keeping in view the learning problems of the children.
- Rehabilitation of physically challenged children.
- To provide information about the learning problems of physically challenged children.
- To provide information about the learning problems of physically challenged children and to prepare group organization for improvement.
- Find out the disabilities of the children and try to redress them.
Process of Inclusive Education
There are four processes –
- Standardization – Normalization is the process that creates a normal social environment for talented children and youth to learn the work as far as possible.
- Institutionless education – Institutionless education is a process in which more and more talented boys and young girls eliminate the limitations of those who take education in residential schools and provide them with the opportunity to get an education among the general public.
- The mainstream of education – The mainstream of education is the process in which gifted children are related to normal children through day-to-day education.
- Inclusion – Inclusion is the process that brings gifted children to the general education room for their education in any case the opposite of coordinated separation. Separation is the process in which a particular group of society is identified separately and gradually the social and personal distance between that group and that of the society increases.
Major problems/ barriers to inclusive education
Many problems or obstacles have to be faced during inclusive education Out of which some of the major problems or obstacles are as follows –
Lack of Teaching Skills in Teachers
In it, special & general children, and disabled children all take education together in the same class and this is the reason why a teacher should have the ability to provide education equally to all those children,
they should employ different teaching skills and methods according to the nature of the students. And at the same time, so many teaching skills should be developed in a teacher so that the teacher can understand the problem of specific and general children and solve their problems effectively.
But this ability is not found in all teachers. Therefore, the biggest problem of inclusive education is the lack of developmental teaching skills in the teacher.
The social attitude of the people of the country or society in which we live is such that we look at disabled children or special children with a negative attitude. They discourage privileged students by creating a societal perception that these people are not able to do anything. Their family or parents also think like this. In this way, other people keep them alienated from society.
They do not even want to give education. The children who want to move forward, these things are instilled in their minds, that you will not be able to do this, you will not be able to do it.
This social attitude is also an important part of the problems of inclusive education, which is ingrained in the mind of every common man.
Another big problem of inclusive education is that the child who is physically disabled has problems in learning and they grab things slower than normal students.
They need a lot of hard work in learning but Ignoring these problems they are treated with the same behavior, teaching, methods, tendencies, etc. Due to this problems arise in them.
While designing the curriculum, it should be kept in mind that the curriculum should be flexible, useful and suitable for general and special children or disabled children.
Problems with Language and Communication in inclusive education
As we all know that in inclusive education, all types of children come to take education. There are some children who do not belong same mother tongue and are found to be uncomfortable in reading and writing.
Due to this problems like understanding and communicating the language arises. This can be regarded as another major challenge in inclusive education.
But this problem is not so prevalent as not all teachers report these problems.
Barriers to Indian Education Policies
There are many such education policies in India that hinder or create obstacles in the way of inclusive education.
Teachers or schools remain within the purview of policies that create problems in them. In today’s article, we discussed the concept of IE.
We hope this information was helpful to you.