DNA or Deoxyribonucleic acid is the chemical name for the molecule that carries genetic instructions in all living organisms. It is a molecule composed of two polynucleotide chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying genetic instructions.
Let us know who discovered DNA. You must have read about D.N.A. and the news related to D.N.A. tests must have also increased your knowledge. But do you know why this D.N.A. is so important and who invented this term?
|Full form of DNA||Deoxyribonucleic acid|
|Discovered by||James Watson and Crick|
|Scientist Nationality||American (James Watson) and Francis (Crick)|
|Features||Contains Biological information|
DNA Full form
The term DNA stands for – “De-deoxyribonucleic acid”. Watson and Crick (James D. Watson and Francis H.C. Crick) developed the D.N.A. based on the study of X-ray diffraction obtained by Maurice H.F. Wilkins in 1953.
They presented the structure and pattern of the molecule. For this, in 1962 these three scientists were awarded the Nobel Prize.
The molecule is made up of two long chains or chains that are coiled around an axis like a winding ladder in opposite directions.
Each formula is made up of molecules of pentose sugar (S) and phosphoric acid (P) called deoxyribose. The ends connecting these two structures are made up of molecules of purine and pyrimidine case.
They live in pairs as adenine (A) is associated with thymine (T) and guanine (G) with cytosine (C). These velocities are linked to each other by hydrogen bonds.
The most important function of DNA is to pass on genetic traits from one generation to another. It forms several types of ribonucleic acids with the help of which protein synthesis takes place. Indirectly, it regulates all the biological activities of the cell.
The thymidine bifunctional structure in D.N.A is caused by ultraviolet (UV) rays.
D.N.A. is said to be the chemical blueprint of life, through which individuals are recognized.
British scientist Dr. Alec Jeffries developed the technology of D.N.A fingerprinting and testing. It is used by the police in forensic science for detective work and the formation of assets. Highest contribution on Finger Printing in India Prof. Lalji (Hyderabad DNA Institute).
We hope, you have understood the concept of “DNA” if there is any doubt, then you can clear your doubt through comment or mail.
What is the importance of copying DNA during reproduction?
The copying of DNA during reproduction is very important as it may result in recombination which leads to evolution and also a transfer of genetic material from one generation to another making the organisms have similar functions.
Additionally, the importance of DNA copying in reproduction can also be understood with the following points –
- The replication of DNA ensures that each daughter cell formed at the end of cell division receives an equal amount of D.N.A.
- If D.N.A is not copied then the daughter cells will fail to receive all necessary genes, in this condition, there could be the absence of important proteins which are encoded by DNA. If DNA is not replicated it may create various abnormalities.
- The stability of the population is also maintained because of copying of D.N.A during reproduction.