Kothari Commission - Aims, objectives & major recommendations

Kothari Commission (1964-66): Aims and recommendations


The Kothari Commission, officially known as the Indian Education Commission was formed in 1964 with the aim of examining the Indian education system and providing recommendations for its improvement.

Since independence, various commissions like – the Radhakrishnan Commission, Mudaliar Commission, Knowledge Commission, and the National Policy on Education, have been established to enhance the Indian education system. Among these, the Kothari Commission is widely regarded as one of the most impactful.

This commission is also known as the National Education Commission, 1964. After its creation, the Government of India expressed the view that the Commission would provide assistance and appropriate suggestions to the Government of India in policy formulation of national education.


The Kothari Commission 1964 was constituted on July 14, 1964 under the chairmanship of Dr. Daulat Singh Kothari with 17 other members.

The commission is commonly referred to as the Kothari Commission due to its chairmanship by Dr. Kothari, reflecting the naming convention based on the chairman’s surname.

Dr. D. S. Kothari was a distinguished Indian physicist who served as the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Delhi and as the Chairman of the University Grants Commission (UGC) in India.

Document overview:

Official NameNational Education Commission, 1964
Formed in July 14, 1964
Reports Submitted onJune 29, 1966
ChairmanDr. Dulat Singh Kothari (D.S Kothari)
Total Members17
Headquarters New Delhi, India
Purpose To remove the defects in the existing education system
Main Objective (s) To review the Indian education system and provide appropriate suggestions to the Government of India for its improvement.

The commission gathered a diverse range of data to enhance India’s education system, presenting its findings to the Government of India and making recommendations for the formulation of education policy.

It portrayed an accurate picture of the country’s education level and facilitated discussions on potential improvements. The primary goal of the Kothari Commission was to elevate the overall standard of education in the nation.

Following a comprehensive survey of the entire education system, the Kothari Commission submitted its report to the Indian government in 1966, offering pertinent suggestions for necessary changes.

Need for Kothari Commission

In 1964, India’s education system faced critical challenges threatening its ability to contribute to national development. Recognizing these shortcomings, the government established the Kothari Commission.

The commission identified several key areas of concern:

  • Neglect of agriculture: The education system failed to equip students with the skills and knowledge needed to contribute to rural development and agricultural productivity.
  • Erosion of values: The curriculum paid insufficient attention to character formation and the cultivation of essential moral and spiritual values, potentially weakening social responsibility and ethical conduct.
  • Disconnect from national goals: The education system lacked a clear connection to India’s aspirations for progress and modernization, failing to adequately prepare students for their role in nation-building.
  • Overemphasis on rote learning: An excessive focus on academic content and rote memorization overshadowed the development of critical thinking, creativity, and practical skills, hindering students’ ability to adapt and thrive in a changing world.

Aims and Objectives of the Kothari Commission

The Kothari Commission aimed to transform India’s education landscape by:

  • Conducting a comprehensive study to identify and analyze key challenges within the existing system.
  • Formulating actionable recommendations for the Government of India to improve the quality, access, and equity of education at all levels.
  • Developing a national pattern of education that is dynamic, flexible, and responsive to the needs of a developing nation.
  • Promoting excellence in teaching, learning, and research to elevate the overall standard of Indian education.
  • Addressing regional and socioeconomic disparities in educational attainment to ensure equal opportunities for all.

Recommendations of the Kothari Commission

The Kothari Commission, officially known as the Indian Education Commission, was formed in 1964 and, submitted its report in 1966.

Some key recommendations of the Kothari Commission include:

  1. Universal Education: The commission emphasized the need for universal education and advocated for free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14.
  2. Common School System: Kothari Commission recommended the establishment of a common school system, where children from all sections of society would study together. This was aimed at reducing disparities in educational opportunities.
  3. Curricular Reforms: The commission proposed a 10+2+3 pattern of education, dividing education into primary, secondary, and higher levels, with additional flexibility at the higher stages.
  4. Vocational Education: The commission stressed the importance of incorporating vocational education in the curriculum to prepare students for employment and practical life skills.
  5. Teacher Education: Recognizing the crucial role of teachers, the Kothari Commission recommended improvements in teacher education programs, including better training and professional development for educators.
  6. Regional Language: The commission proposed the three Language Formula, where students learn three languages – mother tongue, Hindi, and English – at different stages and levels. It emphasized the importance of using the mother tongue or regional language as the medium of instruction in the early years of schooling to make education more accessible and meaningful for students.
  7. Educational Planning and Administration: The Kothari Commission called for better planning and administration in the education sector. It recommended the establishment of national and state-level educational planning bodies responsible for formulating, coordinating, and monitoring educational policies and plans.
  8. Examination Reforms: The commission suggested reforms in the examination system, promoting a continuous and comprehensive evaluation (CCE) method over the traditional system of annual examinations.
  9. Educational Technology: Recognizing the role of technology in education, the commission recommended the use of audio-visual aids, radio broadcasts, and other technological tools to make learning more engaging, interactive, and effective.
  10. Financial Support: The commission highlighted the need for increased financial support for education at all levels, with a focus on providing resources for the expansion and improvement of educational facilities. It suggested the central government should invest at least 6% of its income in the education sector.


According to the Kothari Commission, education should be linked with the idea of National reconstruction.

The Kothari Commission has a very important contribution to the field of education, through this the Indian education system has been made more strong and more effective. It has started a new era in the field of education.

The entire work of increasing the budget for education has been completed only through the Kothari Commission. It has made a valuable contribution to the field of education.

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