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What is Bloom’s Taxonomy? Definition, Key highlights and its action verbs

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“Taxonomy of Educational Objectives” basically knowns as Bloom’s Taxonomy is an educational framework that was authored by Benjamin Bloom along with his four collaborators – Max Englehart, Edward Furst, Walter Hill, and David Krathwohl in 1956.

The framework was originally published in the year 1965 and the same has been revised in 2001 (referred to as “The Revised Taxonomy 2001” thereafter).

In this article, we will highlight the key features of the Blooms Taxonomy in detail.

Overview

The original Taxonomy was published in 1956. The framework has been aimed to be applied by generations of K-12 teachers and college instructors in their teaching methods.

DocumentBloom’s Taxonomy
Author (s)Benjamin Bloom, Max Englehart, Edward Furst, Walter Hill, and David Krathwohl
Year1956
PlaceUniversity of Chicago
RevisionThe Revised Taxonomy – 2001

The “Taxonomy of Educational Objectives” or Blooms Taxonomy is consists of six major categories which are given in below –

  1. Knowledge
  2. Comprehension
  3. Application
  4. Analysis
  5. Synthesis, and
  6. Evaluation

The last five categories were presented as “skills and abilities,” with the understanding that knowledge was the necessary precondition for putting these skills and abilities into practice.

Bloom’s Taxonomy is known for its six categories. Each category includes its subcategories, all lying along a continuum from simple to complex and concrete to abstract.

Bloom’s Taxonomy – 1956

Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives provide one of the most widely used ways of organizing the levels of expertise.

You can learn more with the below six categories of the Blooms Taxonomy –

  • Knowledge: “involves the recall of specific events and information or recognition of terms, ideas, procedure, theories, etc.”
  • Comprehension: “ Comprehension refers to a way of translation or interpretation without considering the implications.”
  • Application: refers to the “use of general principles, or methods to specific concrete situations.
  • Analysis: It involves the “separation of a complex idea into its constituent parts and realizing the distinction between hypothesis and fact including the relevant and extraneous variables.”
  • Synthesis: It incorporates “creative, mental construction of ideas and concepts from multiple sources to form complex ideas into a new, integrated, and meaningful patterns subject to a specific idea.”
  • Evaluation: Evaluation refers to “a process of making a judgment of ideas with self-selected ideas based on observations or informed rationalizations.”

For better understanding, you can download Bloom’s Taxonomy Pdf here. The research paper defines all terms mention above with well-structured examples.

A comprehensive guide of Bloom’s Taxonomy including the arrangements of Bloom’s verbs is provided with the pdf below. You can download The original Bloom’s Taxonomy verbs through the button below –

The Revised Taxonomy (2001)

Revised taxonomy employs the use of 25 verbs to help understand the students’ behavior a learning outcome.

Revised taxonomy uses verbs and gerunds instead of nouns of original taxonomy to achieve its educational objectives. These action words focus on a more dynamic conception of classification. You can learn them below –

  1. Remember
    • Recognizing, listing and describing
    • Recalling information
  1. Understand
    • Interpreting
    • Exemplifying
    • Classifying
    • Summarizing
    • Inferring
    • Comparing
    • Explaining
  1. Apply
    • Executing
    • Implementing
  1. Analyze
    • Differentiating
    • Organizing
    • Attributing
  1. Evaluate
    • Checking
    • Critiquing
  1. Create
    • Generating
    • Planning
    • Producing

In the revised taxonomy of 2001, knowledge was kept at the center for the above 6 cognitive processes. However, it was further separated as new taxonomy based on the types of knowledge used in cognition –

  1. Factual Knowledge
    • Knowledge of terminology
    • Knowledge of specific details and elements
  1. Conceptual Knowledge
    • Knowledge of classifications and categories
    • Knowledge of principles and generalizations
    • Knowledge of theories, models, and structures
  1. Procedural Knowledge
    • Knowledge of subject-specific skills and algorithms
    • Knowledge of subject-specific techniques and methods
    • Knowledge of criteria for determining when and how to use a right and appropriate procedures
  1. Metacognitive Knowledge
    • Strategic Knowledge
    • Knowledge about cognitive tasks, that also includes appropriate contextual and conditional knowledge
    • Self-knowledge
Blooms Taxonomy vs Blooms Taxonomy Revised
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A brief summary of the revised taxonomy is provided in the pdf below. To download the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy Of Educational Objectives Pdf please click on the button below –

Goals, aims and objectives of Blooms Taxonomy

Bloom’s Taxonomy is aimed to provide a multi-tiered scale to express the level of expertise required to achieve each measurable student outcome.

Organizing measurable student outcomes in this way Bloom’s Taxonomy allows teachers to select appropriate classroom assessment techniques for the course.

Its main objective is to develop the student in the best possible capabilities and to achieve this objective it has three structured goals –

  • Knowledge-based goals
  • skills-based goals and
  • affective goals (values, attitudes, and interests)

They all have a taxonomy for each which you can find in detail under table 1 with the Bloom’s Taxonomy pdf attached here. Under each taxonomy, levels of expertise are organized in order of increasing complexity.

Measurable student outcomes that necessitate higher levels of expertise need more sophisticated classroom/lecture hall assessment techniques.

Importance of Bloom’s Taxonomy

Like any other taxonomy, bloom’s taxonomy is a map that allows us to understand the things we need to facilitate.

Chacha Nehru, an Indian thinker, realized the gravity of child education and said that students are the future of a country and one day the future of the nation will be handed over to them.

It is important to introduce such a learning hierarchy or method so that every student can develop in the best possible manner. Bloom’s Taxonomy deals with student education, ensuring quality learning to students.

In this way bloom’s taxonomy by setting the academic future of students, it shapes the future of a country. It is important as it provides a road map to the teachers letting them know – What to follow and how to make an action plan to teach the students in a right effective manner.

Bloom’s Taxonomy Pdf download

Taxonomy of Educational Objectives or Bloom’s Taxonomy pdf file is available for download on this page.

To download Blooms Taxonomy pdf now, click on the below button –

Conclusion

Bloom’s Taxonomy is a convenient way to describe the degree to which we want our students to understand and use concepts, to demonstrate particular skills, and to have their values, attitudes, and interests affected.

It is critical that we determine the levels of student expertise that we are expecting our students to achieve because this will determine which classroom assessment techniques are most appropriate for the course.

Bloom’s taxonomy helps educators develop critical thinking and higher-order cognitive ability in students. The best education is one that generates the ability in students to create something.

Bloom’s Taxonomy serves purposes to provide a framework or organization, for classifying classroom lesson objectives.

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