Indian Constitution features

Indian Constitution: History, Features and Preamble

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History of the Indian Constitution: The Swaraj Party first suggested the creation of the Indian Constitution in 1924 in a vast country like India in which people of many religions and communities live together.

For the orderly operation of such a country, it was necessary that such a policy should be formulated so that the Indian system of governance could be run smoothly.

Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar was the chairman of the drafting committee, he is also known as the father of the Indian constitution.

History of Indian Constitution?

For the making of the Constitution, a meeting was formed in 1946, which was known as the Constituent Assembly. At that time the total number of members of the Constituent Assembly was 389.

The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held on 9 December 1946 in a library building located in New Delhi.

Experienced Dr. Satchidanand Sinha was declared as the Provisional President of the Constituent Assembly and Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as the Permanent President of the Constituent Assembly.

This was the first meeting of the Constituent Assembly. In this meeting, Jawaharlal Nehru presented the Preface of the Constitution before the Constituent Assembly. Which is known as the Preamble of the constitution.

How was the constitution of India made?

After the partition of India and Pakistan, the Constituent Assembly was reconstituted on 31 October 1947. A committee was formed to frame the Indian Constitution. Which presented its report in the Constituent Assembly on 21 February 1948.

The first discussion on this report lasted from 4 November to 9 November 1948. After that, the second discussion on this report lasted from 15 November 1948 to 17 October 1949 and its third i.e. final discussion lasted from 14 November 1949 to 26 November 1949.

After this the Constituent Assembly passed the Indian Constitution. Which came into force on 26 January 1950.

The process of making the Indian Constitution lasted for 2 years 11 months 18 days and it cost Rs 63,96,729.

The committee which presented the draft of this before the Constituent Assembly, the chairman of that committee was Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar, that is why he is seen as the architect of this.

All the work was done under the strict supervision of Dr. Bhim Rao. Therefore, he is known as the father of the Indian constitution.

At present, the total number of Articles of the Constitution is 464 and it is divided into 22 parts with 12 schedules.

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Features of Indian Constitution

Secular

India is a country of different religions. People of many religions reside here.

Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Jains and Buddhists, all religions make an important contribution to the development of the nation by establishing coordination and fraternity. The History of this was also created keeping this in mind.

Decentralization of Power

Powers have been decentralized between the executive, judiciary and legislature. Similarly, the powers have been divided between the state and the center. Which are very important for democracy.

Fundamental Rights

Fundamental rights have been provided to Indian citizens by the Constitution, in which –

  1. Right to equality (Article 14 – 18)
  1. Right to freedom (Article 19 – 22)
  1. Right against exploitation (Article 23 – 24)
  1. Right to freedom of religion (Article 25 – 28)
  1. Right to education and culture (Article 29 – 30)
  • Right to property (Article 31)
  1. Right to constitutional remedies (Article 32)

At present, there are only 6 fundamental rights available in the constitution as the Right to Property was removed from the list of fundamental rights by the 44th Amendment Act, 1978.

The right to property is not a fundamental right. It is now a legal right as mentioned under Article 300-A in part XII of the constitution.

Written Constitution

The Indian Constitution is the largest written constitution in the world. According to the large population, its area and its policies have also been included in the comprehensiveness.

Independent Judiciary

The independence of the judiciary has been accepted by the Indian Constitution. This feature is very important to protect the democratic spirit of India.

Rigid Constitution

The Indian Constitution is called a rigid constitution because the procedures followed in the amendment of the Indian Constitution are very broad.

Parliamentary Governance System

The parliamentary system of government has been adopted by the Indian Constitution. In which Parliament was accepted as the center of powers.

We see that any law is first introduced in the Parliament itself and the process of constitutional amendment is also implemented in the Parliament.

Preamble of Indian constitution

The Preamble of this was added in 1976 under the 42nd Constitutional Amendment.

In which the following text was included:

“We, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure all citizens:

JUSTICE, Social, Economic and Political: Liberty of thought, expression, belief. faith and worship.

EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all;

FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation.

IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.

The main points of the Preamble:

  • The Preamble of the Indian Constitution is considered to be the center of the Constitution.
  • The Preamble of the Indian Constitution cannot be amended.
  • The words socialist, secular and integrity were included in the Indian Constitution under the 42nd Amendment.

Article 370 of the Indian Constitution

The Constituent Assembly granted special status to Jammu and Kashmir on 17 October 1949 under Article 370. In which the State was given the right to make its own laws and make an independent government system.

According to Article 370 of the Indian Constitution, any law made by the Government of India will not apply in Jammu and Kashmir because it has been given special rights under 370.

This was not good for the sovereignty and integrity of India. Realizing this, the Central government presented the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization Bill in Parliament on 5 August 2019, which was passed in the Parliament, and Article 370 was repealed.

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Questions of History of Indian Constitution

Who was the provisional president of the Constituent Assembly?

Dr. Satchidanand Sinha.

Which party laid the foundation of the history of this?

Swaraj Party.

Who was the permanent president of the Constituent Assembly?

Dr. Rajendra Prasad.

How long did it take to make the Indian Constitution?

2 years 11 months 18 days.

How much was the total expenditure in making the constitution?

6396729 Rs.

Article 370 of the Constitution was related to which state?

Jammu and Kashmir.

When did Article 370 come into force?

17 October 1949.

When did Article 370 end?

5 August 2019.

Under which constitutional amendment was the Preamble of the Indian Constitution added?

42nd

When was Article 35A added to the Constitution?

14 May 1954.

Conclusion

Our nation is a democratic nation. Special types of policies have been formulated to maintain its sovereignty and integrity.

How to run the Indian system of governance, how to make laws, what process should be adopted in elections, and how powers should be decentralized. We get to see all these things mentioned in our constitution.

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